Tratos Cavi S.p.A. is an international manufacturer and supplier of Optical Fibre Cables, with over 20 years of experience in the field.
The principles of optical communication have been known for a long time but only in the last fifteen years have they been used extensively in the field of telecommunication, data and image transmission.
The composition and special features of optical core cables, as well as the ways in which they are commonly used, are discussed below.
The fibres incorporate a central zone of silica with a high index of refraction called core, a pure silica layer with a lower index of refraction called cladding and a coating layer.
The rays of light introduced in the fibre can be of different wave-lengths, which is called the 'mode', and the wavelength number depends on the technology of the fibre production.
The transmission principle of the light in an optical fibre is based on the total reflection between core and cladding.
Continuous development of the materials which constitute the fibre have resulted in better signal transmission, considerably reducing the attenuation values and consequently the necessity of the amplification signal along the line.
Meanwhile, a better geometry of the core, cladding and coating supports the performance of joints and terminations, eradicating nearly all attenuation increase.
When we design a fibre optic cable, it is necessary to take into consideration the minimum bending radius applicable, the frequency and the number of bendings, the thermal cycles and the pulling force to which the cable will be submitted during the installation.
It is important, therefore, that all the design parameters and the production technology ensure that the fibres are free of any mechanical loads.
The reliability of the fibre over time is largely due to the way that it is placed inside the cable, which may be considered as a container for the fibre itself.
The fibres must be longer than the actual length of the cable to avoid or moderate any mechanical stress. This will also allow room for the inevitable thermal expansion of the fibre during the production and usage phases, thereby assuring a long working life.
- very large transmission capacity
- very low transmission loss
- very low dispersion
- very long line without signal amplification needs
- immune to electromagnetic interference
- no crosstalk
- suitable for data, telecomunication video, etc.
- no radiation along the cable
- flame retardant
- low smoke and toxic gas
- metal free design
- rodent proof
- light weight
- small diameter
In general, all the cables we produce can be supplied in flame retardant versions and with low emission of toxic fumes and corrosive gasses. These will meet test levels in accordance with national and international standards. These particular performances can be achieved using special materials for inner and outer sheaths and for other components.
Appropriate tests are carried out in accordance with Quality Assurance procedures to ensure excellent performance.
All material supplied to the customer is accompanied by technical documents indicating the product's compliance with relevant technical specifications, thus confirming the compliance of the product in terms of construction and performance.
Below are the three main technologies that are used to produce fibre optic cables: Loose Tube, Slotted Core and Ribbon.
The fibres are situated inside small tubes, together with jelly protection.
The fibres must be free to move.
The dimensions and the number of tubes can be different by way of the number of fibres they contain, the type of utilisation, etc.
Figure 1 shows a traditional stranded loose tube cable core.
The fibres are situated inside helical ducts of a central element (slot) together with jelly protection.
The fibres must be free to move.
The dimensions and the number of ducts can differ according to the number of fibres, what the cable is being used for and spare fibres for future utilisation.
Figure 2 shows a traditional slotted core cable.
The fibres are situated in the same layer, one next to the other and fixed with special materials: with this method we obtain the 'ribbon', the components of which are fitted inside tubes or slotted-core and overlaid on each other. The number of fibres for each ribbon can be different (normally from 4 up to 16 fibres). This is the same for the number of ribbons within each tube or duct.
Figure 3 shows a traditional ribbon core cable.
With many years' experience and the most up-to-date technology at our disposal, we can offer our customers everything they need to meet the highest performance requirements in the field of telecommunications.
Use sectors are:
- Indoor & outdoor
- Overhead Power Lines
- Gas Pipelines
- Homes & Work areas
Our customers include all the main worlwide Telecomunication groups and engineering companies.